Effects on the surrounding tissue
Carcinoma of the lip infiltrates the submucosa, then the muscles, and the subcutaneous fat later. Even the skin of the cheeks can become involved. When the buccinator muscle is taken, patients can have trismus and problems to chew. Carcinoma of the lip can also infiltrate the buccal mucosa, alveolar ridges, and even the whole vestibule of the mouth. Carcinoma of the tongue can spread to the base of the mouth, tonsils, jaws, and gums. When it infiltrates the jaw, it leads to swelling and pain in the jaw. Gingival carcinoma can spread to the cheek, the floor of the mouth, retromolar trigone, and hard palate.