Causes of gastritis
The most common causes of acute gastritis are as follows:
Including aspirin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). They reduce the secretion of mucus and bicarbonate in the gastric wall. As such, they trigger a loss of the cytoprotecting mechanism of the stomach.
- Helicobacter pylori infection
It is most often involved in antral gastritis. Its flagella help it moving through the mucosa and invading the mucosal wall with its cytotoxin. Increases of pH in the stomach allow H. pylori to grow by providing a protective environment from the acid. Urease, in this case, can increase the ph and causes atrophic gastritis.
It may directly cause damage to the wall, or it can be indirectly by an increase in the production of urea compounds.
- Viral infections
Including cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus in HIV or AIDS patients. Candida can also cause gastritis in AIDS patients.
- Bile reflux/duodenogastric reflux
It is another risk factor for gastritis, and most patients have both problems at the same time.
- Hypovolemic shock
It causes hypoperfusion of the gastric mucosa. Perfusion is necessary for mucin and bicarbonate production. Losing this barrier gives HCL a chance to destroy the mucosa of the stomach.
- Toxic substances
Including the accidental consumption of corrosive substances which cause an injury to the gastric lining.
- Radiotherapy and chemotherapy
Cancer therapy can cause injury to the mucosal cells due to their cytotoxic effects.