The treatment of ulcers mainly depends on the cause of ulcer formation. Most of the treatments include the killing of H. pylori bacteria or reduce the use of NSAIDs and also use some medication to heal the existing ulcers. If a person experiences some severe complications from the ulcer such as perforation or acute bleeding, then they might need surgery.
Following are the treatment methods or medications to heal the stomach ulcers:
Medications which protect the stomach lining and small intestine
In a few cases, the doctor prescribes certain medications having cytoprotective agents in them to save the structures of tissues lining the stomach and small intestine. Some of these medications are sucralfate and misoprostol.
Medications that reduce stomach acid production
Certain medications are known as acid blockers, also called histamine blockers to decrease the amount of stomach acid secretion in the digestive tract. The reduction in the amount of stomach acid secretion aids in providing relief for the ulcer pain and improves the tissue healing process. Some of the medications commonly known as acid blockers come under the name of cimitidine, famotidine, and nizatidine in the market.
Use of antibiotics for killing H. pylori bacteria
If the endoscopy results show the presence of H. pylori bacteria infection in your stomach, then the doctors go for the use of antibiotic medications to get rid of the bacteria. Usually, doctors use a combination of antibiotics to achieve effective results. The doctors recommend the use of antibiotic by determining the area of your residence and the antibiotic resistance rate in your body the doctor suggests you take medicines for almost two weeks in addition to the medications to reduce the production of stomach acids. The additional medications also include protein pump indications and Pepto-Bismol medication. The antibiotics commonly used are tinidazole, amoxicillin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, clarithromycin, and tetracycline.
Medications to block acid production
The doctor suggests the use of proton pump inhibitors, also known as PPIs, to reduce the production of stomach acids by causing the blockage of the parts of the cell that secrete the acid. The long term use of these proton pump inhibitors for frequent doses might increase your chances of a wrist, hip, and spine fracture. The drugs available in the market as proton pump inhibitors are lansoprazole, esomeprazole, rabeprazole, omeprazole, and pantoprazole.
Medications like antacids to neutralize stomach acid
The doctor might include the antacids in your course of medication to aid in the reduction of stomach acids in the digestive tract. The antacids help to neutralize the already present stomach acids in your stomach and provide relief to the open sores. Antacids might have some side effects like diarrhea and constipation, depending on the diet of the patient. The antacids available in the market usually help to improve the situation but not heal the ulcer.
Ulcers that do not heal
The ulcers that do not heal by following the treatment are known as refractory ulcers. There are specific reasons due to which the ulcers fail to heal, and some of these reasons are:
- Frequent and long term use of tobacco
- Not taking medications as per directions
- The regular use of painkillers like aspirin and NSAIDs
- The H. pylori bacteria become resistant to antibiotics